PHN 652-Topic 2 DQ 1: Classmate response (2)-Models And Tools Used In Public Health
QUESTION- Why are public health models important in providing quality health care? Briefly describe two public health models and their impact on quality health care.
Classmate( Carlos) reply –
There are numerous models aimed at changing the structure of a specific system or delivery of services. As a result, one needs to be aware of what the model is targeting in order to attain the best possible outcome. These models help the user carry out a plan, identify the issue, develop an intervention, implement it and evaluate the results in a systematic way. Public health models are aimed towards disease prevention and health promotion. Preventing diseases from occurring with the use of interventions backed by evidence-based practice allows for greater success. Which is why using models is a great way to provide quality health care. According to Rural Health Information (2018a), when selecting a model to implement, one has to take into account factors such as the population, the health problem, and the context with which the model will be implemented in. The Minnesota Department of Health’s Public Health Intervention model is a great model that is divided into 16 sections, which is then further broken down into three levels of practice. This model helps the public health nurses carry out interventions based on their scope of practice. This model impacts the quality of health care because it allows for individuals specialized in a specific area to focus in what they have a mastery of, allowing for a greater successful outcome. Another model is the Stages of Change Model also known as the Transtheoretical Model. This model focuses on the individual’s readiness to change their behavior through a series of stages: Pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and termination (Rural Health Information Hub, 2018b). This model provides quality health care by inserting the proper intervention based on the stage in which the individual is in to help them progress to the next stage. The model can be of big help with health promotion because it focuses on healthy behaviors and the setting in which the individual is in. This model is great to implement for programs that are aimed at substance abuse, exercise, smoking, and noncompliance.
Rural health Information Hub. (2018a). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Theories. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/theories-and-models
Rural health Information Hub. (2018b). Stages of change model (transtheoretical model). retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/theories-and-models/stages-of-change
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Response to a Classmate’s (Carlos)
I agree with your definition of a public health model as a model that seeks to address the social or health problems in a given community comprehensively. However, I believe that a public health model should consider various issues related to communities, including the environment in which a community resides, and also identify causes and suggest possible interventions. On the other hand, a public health model will also adopt a population approach to disease prevention and health promotion (Duplaga et al., 2016). The public health model will, therefore, not only focus on the traditional areas of treatment diagnosis and etiology but also on health promotion, disease prevention, epidemiologic surveillance, and access to and evaluation of services (Duplaga et al., 2016). Public health models also aim to prevent various challenges by quickly identifying and responding to any problems that may occur in a community, targeting interventions and policies and specific known risk factors to a given problem, and finally minimizing the long-term effects of a given problem (Duplaga et al., 2016).
In addition to the Minnesota Department of Health, public health intervention model, and the transtheoretical model, there are other public health models, including ecological models and health belief models. Ecological models are, therefore, the models that consider the diverse levels that might influence health behaviors, including interpersonal factors, institutional and organizational factors, community factors and public policy factors (Peckham et al., 2017). Ecological models of public health highlight that the health behaviors of communities will be affected by numerous factors. On the other hand, health belief model is also another model that can guide health promotion programs (Peckham et al., 2017).
Duplaga, M., Grysztar, M., Rodzinka, M., & Kopec, A. (2016). Scoping review of health promotion and disease prevention interventions addressed to elderly people. BMC Health Services Research, 16(S5). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1521-4
Peckham, S., Hann, A., Kendall, S., & Gillam, S. (2017). Health promotion and disease prevention in general practice and primary care: a scoping study. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 18(06), 529–540. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1463423617000494